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TensorFlow

通常会配合 numpy 以及 pandas 还有 matplotlib 一起使用。

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

关于 TensorFlow 层级结构的直观的理解


直到现在的版本 tensorflow==2.4 时,使用和安装 tf (的原生 GPU 支持)仍然是一件麻烦的事情。

安装

使用 docker 或原生安装。最好设置原生 GPU 支持。

使用 GPU 时,通常需要设定 Memory Growth 选项,以免出现内存问题。

# Set memory growth option, see <https://www.tensorflow.org/guide/gpu>
gpus = tf.config.experimental.list_physical_devices('GPU')
if gpus:
  try:
    for gpu in gpus:
      tf.config.experimental.set_memory_growth(gpu, True)
    logical_gpus = tf.config.experimental.list_logical_devices('GPU')
    print(len(gpus), "Physical GPUs,", len(logical_gpus), "Logical GPUs")
  except RuntimeError as e:
    print(e)

docker 安装

docker 安装的参考文章:

典型安装

典型安装非常麻烦,但是装上总是有好处的。如果经常使用还是选择典型安装较好。

典型安装时,务必遵照版本需求

可能需要 apt hold 住特定的软件版本防止升级。

apt list --installed | grep cudnn
sudo apt-mark hold libcudnn8 libcudnn8-dev

sudo apt-mark showhold
sudo apt-mark unhold <package-name>

测试安装

如果下面三个测试代码都能运行,那么 TensorFlow 的安装基本没有问题。

import tensorflow as tf

print('CPUs:', tf.config.list_physical_devices('CPU'))
print('GPUs:', tf.config.list_physical_devices('GPU'))
import tensorflow as tf

mnist = tf.keras.datasets.mnist

(x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data()
x_train, x_test = x_train / 255.0, x_test / 255.0

model = tf.keras.models.Sequential([
  tf.keras.layers.Flatten(input_shape=(28, 28)),
  tf.keras.layers.Dense(128, activation='relu'),
  tf.keras.layers.Dropout(0.2),
  tf.keras.layers.Dense(10, activation='softmax')
])

model.compile(optimizer='adam',
              loss='sparse_categorical_crossentropy',
              metrics=['accuracy'])

model.fit(x_train, y_train, epochs=5)

model.evaluate(x_test,  y_test, verbose=2)
import tensorflow as tf

from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense, Flatten, Conv2D
from tensorflow.keras import Model

# Set memory growth option, see <https://www.tensorflow.org/guide/gpu>
gpus = tf.config.experimental.list_physical_devices('GPU')
if gpus:
  try:
    for gpu in gpus:
      tf.config.experimental.set_memory_growth(gpu, True)
    logical_gpus = tf.config.experimental.list_logical_devices('GPU')
    print(len(gpus), "Physical GPUs,", len(logical_gpus), "Logical GPUs")
  except RuntimeError as e:
    print(e)


mnist = tf.keras.datasets.mnist

(x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data()
x_train, x_test = x_train / 255.0, x_test / 255.0

# Add a channels dimension
x_train = x_train[..., tf.newaxis]
x_test = x_test[..., tf.newaxis]

train_ds = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices(
    (x_train, y_train)).shuffle(10000).batch(32)
test_ds = tf.data.Dataset.from_tensor_slices((x_test, y_test)).batch(32)

class MyModel(Model):
  def __init__(self):
    super(MyModel, self).__init__()
    self.conv1 = Conv2D(32, 3, activation='relu')
    self.flatten = Flatten()
    self.d1 = Dense(128, activation='relu')
    self.d2 = Dense(10, activation='softmax')

  def call(self, x):
    x = self.conv1(x)
    x = self.flatten(x)
    x = self.d1(x)
    return self.d2(x)

model = MyModel()

loss_object = tf.keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy()

optimizer = tf.keras.optimizers.Adam()

train_loss = tf.keras.metrics.Mean(name='train_loss')
train_accuracy = tf.keras.metrics.SparseCategoricalAccuracy(name='train_accuracy')

test_loss = tf.keras.metrics.Mean(name='test_loss')
test_accuracy = tf.keras.metrics.SparseCategoricalAccuracy(name='test_accuracy')

@tf.function
def train_step(images, labels):
  with tf.GradientTape() as tape:
    predictions = model(images)
    loss = loss_object(labels, predictions)
  gradients = tape.gradient(loss, model.trainable_variables)
  optimizer.apply_gradients(zip(gradients, model.trainable_variables))

  train_loss(loss)
  train_accuracy(labels, predictions)

@tf.function
def test_step(images, labels):
  predictions = model(images)
  t_loss = loss_object(labels, predictions)

  test_loss(t_loss)
  test_accuracy(labels, predictions)

EPOCHS = 5

for epoch in range(EPOCHS):
  train_loss.reset_states()
  train_accuracy.reset_states()
  test_loss.reset_states()
  test_accuracy.reset_states()

  for images, labels in train_ds:
    train_step(images, labels)

  for test_images, test_labels in test_ds:
    test_step(test_images, test_labels)

  template = 'Epoch {}, Loss: {}, Accuracy: {}, Test Loss: {}, Test Accuracy: {}'
  print (template.format(epoch+1,
                         train_loss.result(),
                         train_accuracy.result()*100,
                         test_loss.result(),
                         test_accuracy.result()*100))

最后更新: March 28, 2021